Albedo (//), or reflection coefficient, derived from Latin albedo "whiteness" (or reflected sunlight) in turn from albus "white," is the diffuse reflectivity or reflecting power of a surface. It is the ratio of reflected radiation from the surface to incident radiation upon it. Its dimensionless nature lets it be expressed as a percentage and is measured on a scale from zero for no reflection of a perfectly black surface to 1 for perfect reflection of a white surface.
This paper investigates the creation of non-photorealistic illustrations from a type of data lying between simple 2D images and full 3D models: images with both a color (albedo) and a surface normalstored at each pixel. Images with normals combine an acquisition process only mildly more complex than that for digital photographs (and significantly easier than 3D scanning) with the power and flexibility of tools similar to those originally developed for full 3D models. We investigate methods for signal processing on images with normals, developing algorithms for scale-space analysis, derivative (i.e., curvature) estimation, and segmentation. These are used to implement analogues of stylized rendering techniques such as toon shading, line drawing, curvature shading, and exaggerated shading. We also introduce new stylization effects based on multiscale mean curvature shading, as well as fast discontinuity shadows. We show that our rendering pipeline can produce detailed yet understandable illustrations in medical, technical, and archaeological domains.